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FIELD EVENT BASICS

LONG JUMP

The Long Jump consists of 4 main parts:-

1.Approach

2.Take off

3.Flight

4.Landing

 

The approach needs to be fast, controlled, and consistent. From personal experience I know you can lose up to 1m through an inconsistent approach. The beginning of the approach is routine but the final 5 strides are where you judgment comes in to adjust the stride pattern appropriately. At take off the object is to convert horizontal velocity into vertical velocity, ideally the take off angle should be about 40 degrees but the human body is incapable of this and only around 20, and 25 degrees is achieved by world class men and women respectively. To assist this transfer of velocities athletes allow their hips to sink slightly in the last few strides. You can use a variety of movements in the air, known as the hang, sail, and hitch kick, but all are intended to control the natural forward rotation created at take off. (Some athletes decided not to fight the rotation but go with it and do a somersault in the air, the distances were not affected but do to the danger the rules forbid it - do not try this yourself!!) The landing provides the final opportunity to gain a few extra centimeters by extending the length of the flight through the raising of the legs. 

 

HIGH JUMP

Factors affecting height achieved:-

1.Height of center of gravity at take off:-

        Affected by - Physique, Take off position

2.Vertical take off velocity

3.Height over the bar:-

        Affected by - body position at peak, body movements over the bar

 

 

TRIPLE JUMP

 

minimize loss of speed

 

 

POLE VAULT

Factors affecting height achieved:-

1.Height of center of gravity at take off:-

        Affected by - Physique, Take off position

2.Height gained from work on pole:-

        Affected by - Speed at take off, strain energy at take off, mechanical energy losses, body position at release

3.Height achieved after pole release:-

        Affected by - Body position relative to the pole, effectiveness of pull/push, vertical velocity leaving the pole

4.Height over the bar:-

        Affected by - body velocity at peak, body position at peak, body movements over the bar

 

THROWS

The measured distance of all throws are determined by:-

1.Release height

2.Release angle

3.Release speed

4.Distance from line/front of circle

and for the Javelin and Discus:-

5.Implement orientation/drag/aerodynamic factors

 

JAVELIN

The Javelin differs from the other throws as it is a totally linear throw and the approach is relatively unrestricted in its length.

An advanced throw consists of:-

1.Carry

2.Switch to side steps

3.Impulse step

4.Plant/pull through

5.Release

 

DISCUS

All athletes today use a maximum of 1 and a half turns, although people have unsuccessfully experimented with more turns.

 

 

HAMMER

Although most Hammer throwers today use 4 rotations the World Record is still held by an athlete that used 3 turns.

 

SHOT

Athletes have the choice of either a linear put or a rotational put.

Currently around 80% of the worlds top male Shot Putters use a rotational technique but almost all female, and multi-event athletes use a linear technique. It is also worth noting that the men's World Record is still held by an athlete who used a linear technique.

 

The proportionate contributions of the body's muscle groups to a shot put are:-

50% legs

30% trunk

20% arms

 

 

 

MULTI-EVENTS

Men - Decathlon - Day 1 - 100m, LJ, SHOT, HJ, 400m - Day 2 - 110mH, DISCUS, PV, JAVELIN, 1500m

Women - Heptathlon - Day 1 - 100mH, SHOT, HJ, 200m - Day 2 - LJ, JAVELIN, 800m