The measured distance of all throws are determined by:-
4.Distance from line/front of circle
and for the Javelin and Discus:-
5.Implement orientation/drag/aerodynamic factors
The Javelin differs from the other throws as it is a totally linear throw and the approach is relatively unrestricted in its length.
An advanced throw consists of:-
2.Switch to side steps
All athletes today use a maximum of 1 and a half turns, although people have unsuccessfully experimented with more turns.
Although most Hammer throwers today use 4 rotations the World Record is still held by an athlete that used 3 turns.
Athletes have the choice of either a linear put or a rotational put.
Currently around 80% of the worlds top male Shot Putters use a rotational technique but almost all female, and multi-event athletes use a linear technique. It is also worth noting that the World Record's are still held by an athletes who used a linear technique.
A rotational style makes higher release release velocities possible, but it is more unstable, which can result in a poorer release position.
The thrower must develop technique, but the speed-strength factor is extremely important. A thrower must be quick, and explosive to accelerate the shot to a high release speed.
The proportionate contributions of the body's muscle groups to a shot put are:-
Clearly leg power is vital to success. The throw should progress from the ground up. Lead the throw with the knees and hips. Energy flows from legs, hips to shoulder, arm and implement in a linked series. Rotation of the right (or left if left handed) foot-knee-hip is fundamental to all throws. The shot is thrown from the jerk position (knees bent equally), weight shifting from right to left over the front (left) leg [reverse if left handed].
Explosive strength is more important than absolute strength in shot putting. Vertical jump, standing long jump, and 20-metre sprint are good indicators of explosive strength and better performances correlate well with better performances. The main exercises performed by throwers in the gym to develop strength are Bench press, power clean, snatch, and squat.