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NUTRITION

 

RECOMMENDED DIET FOR DIFFERENT EVENTS

The vales refer to g/kg of body weight (e.g. A 70kg middle distance runner should get between 140 and 161g [(70*2) - (70*2.3)] of protein per day)

EVENT PROTEIN FATS CARBOHYDRATES CALORIES
Short/middle distance 2-2.3 1.5-1.6 9-10 60-65
Jumping/Throwing 2.4-2.5 1.7-1.8 9.5-10 65-70
Long distance/race walking 2-2.3 2-2.1 10.5-11.5 70-75
Ultra distance running 2.4-2.5 2.1-2.3 11-13 75-85
Heavy athletics 2.4-2.5 2-2.3 10-11 70-75
Road racing 2.6-2.8 2.3-2.4 11-13 80-87

 

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

 

 For athletes eating a normal well balanced diet supplementation of vitamins, minerals, and trace elements is not really needed.

VITAMIN

SOURCES

POSSIBLE BENEFIT TO PERFORMANCE

Thiamin

Pulses, Pork, Potatoes, Vegetables, Nuts, Liver, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

No research has been conducted to asses the role of thiamin in isolation in physical performance.

Riboflavin

Milk, Milk products, Cheese, Meat, Liver, Eggs, Green leafy vegetables

Additional supplementation has no affect on performance or the biochemical indicies for this vitamin in the blood.

Niacin

Meat, Poultry, Liver, Fish, Pulses, nuts, Green leafy vegetables, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

Additional supplementation has been found to inhibit FFA (Free Fatty Acid) mobilization from fatty tissue. It is speculated that the depressed FFA levels will lead to early development of fatigue, because muscle glycogen will be used more rapidly.

Pantothenic

acid

Meat, Potatoes, Liver, Milk, Milk products, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

No significant influence on human performance has been found with the supplementation of Panothenic acid.

Vitamin B-6

Fish, Meat, Poultry, Vegetables, Potatoes, Liver, Milk, Milk products, Eggs, Bananas, Nuts, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

An increase in maximum aerobic power and a decrease in lactate accumulation in response to a short supramaximal work load following 30 days supplementation with an alpha-ketoglutarate-pyridoxine complex. Also the supplementation of the metabolic intermediates dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate may enhance endurance capacity.

Folate

Meat, Liver, Green leafy vegetables, Fruit, Potatoes, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

No research has been conducted top asses the role of folate in isolation in physical performance.

Vitamin B-12

Fish, Shellfish, Meat, Poultry, Liver, Eggs, Milk, Milk products

No benefit to physical performance has been found through supplementation of additional vitamin B-12

Biotin

Liver, Eggs, Fish, Nuts, Milk, Milk products.

No research has been conducted top asses the role of biotin in isolation in physical performance

Vitamin C

(absorbic acid)

Vegetables, Fruit, Potatoes

There is some evidence that vitamin C supplementation may enhance heat acclimatization.

Viatamin C (also A, E, and beta-carotene) are antioxidants which may help reduce DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness)

Vitamin A

Liver, Fish, Eggs, Margarine, Butter, Milk, Milk products.

No research has been conducted top asses the role of vitamin A in isolation in physical performance.

Provitamin A

Carotenoids

Carrots, Dark green leafy vegetables, Tomatoes, Oranges

No benefit to physical performance has been found through supplementation of additional provitamin A Carotenoids

Vitamin E

(tocopherol)

Liver, Eggs, Dark bread, and other unrefined cereal products.

Vitamin E may have a partially protective effect on cell membranes at high altitudes.

Vitamin D

Fish, Liver, Eggs, Margarine, Milk, Milk products

No research has been conducted top asses the role of vitamin D in isolation in physical performance.

Vitamin K

Liver, Cheese, Butter, Green leafy vegetables.

No research has been conducted top asses the role of vitamin K in isolation in physical performance.

 

MACRO

MINERALS

FUNCTION

LOCATION

MALES RDA

FEMALES RDA

Calcium

Required for hard bones, Transmission of nerve impulses, Activates certain enzymes, necessary for maintenance of membrane potential, Muscle contraction.

99% in skeleton, remainder in extracellular fluids, Intracellular structures, Cell membranes.

15-24 years - 1200mg

25-50 years - 800mg

15-24 years - 1200mg

25-50 years - 800mg

Magnesium

Co-factor of enzymes in energy metabolism, Maintenance of electrical potentials in muscles and nerves, Component of bone. 40% in muscles and soft tissue, 1% in extracellular fluid, Remainder in skeleton.

15-18 years - 400mg

19-50 years - 350mg

15-18 years - 300mg

19-50 years - 280mg

Phosphorus

Component of bone, Buffer in body fluids, Component of ATP, Nucleotides and co-enzymes

85% in skeleton, Remainder in soft tissue and blood.

15-24 years - 1200mg

25-50 years - 800mg

15-24 years - 1200mg

25-50 years - 800mg

TRACE

MINERALS

FUNCTION

LOCATION

MALES RDA

FEMALES RDA

Zinc

Co-factor of several enzymes in energy metabolism, Immune function, Possible anti-oxidant, Wound healing, taste and smell.

Bones and muscle, Liver, Kidney, Brain 

15-50 years - 15mg

15-50 years - 12mg

Copper

Required for proper use of iron, Role in development of connective tissue, Co-factor to oxidases

Liver, Heart, Kidney, Spleen, Brain.

11+ years - 1.5-2.5mg

Adult - 1.5-3.0mg

11+ years - 1.5-2.5mg

Adult - 1.5-3.0mg

Selenium

Anti-oxidant, Co-factor of glutathione peroxidase.

Stored in liver and kidneys, Widely distributed

15-18 years - 50g

19-50 years - 70g

15-18 years - 50g

19-50 years - 55g

Chromium

Enhances effectiveness of insulin (no function as co-factor to enzymes)

Widely distributed

11+ years - 50-200g

11+ years - 50-200g

Iron

Necessary component of heamoglobin, Myoglobin - transport of oxygen, Facilitates transfer of electrons in electron transport system.

60-70% in heamoglobin, Remainder in bone marrow, muscle, liver, spleen.

15-18 years - 12mg

19-50 years - 10mg

15-50 years - 15mg

 

MACRO

MINERALS

SOURCES EXCESSES DEFICIENCIES POSSIBLE BENEFIT TO PERFORMANCE

Calcium

Dairy products, Sardines, Clams, Oysters, Turnip/mustard greens, Broccoli, Legumes Constipation, Hypocalcaemia, Kidney stones, High levels may inhibit intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, other nutrients. Risk of bone injury and osteoporosis, especially in females. Little research has been done on this but calcium supplementation may be important in reducing the chance  of bone injury in women with menstrual irregularities.

Magnesium

Nuts, Legumes,Unmilled grains, Soybeans, Chocolate, Corn, Peas, Carrots, Seafood, Brown rice, Lima beans Nausea, Vomiting Rare: muscle weakness

It has been suggested that magnesium may facilitate oxygen delivery to working muscles which may enhance aerobic capacity. 

  Intensive training can produce a negative magnesium balance such that supplementation is required. Low blood magnesium can be associated with muscle spasms.

Phosphorus

Protein-rich food, Milk, Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Nuts, Legumes, Cereals Lowers blood calcium Rare Phosphate loading can delay the onset of anaerobic metabolism, reducing the build up of lactate, and delaying the onset of fatigue.

TRACE

MINERALS

SOURCES EXCESSES DEFICIENCIES POSSIBLE BENEFIT TO PERFORMANCE

Zinc

Oysters, Wheat germ, Beef, Calf liver, Dark meat in poultry, Whole grains Gastro-intestinal irritation, Impair copper absorption, Decline in HDLs (high density lipoproteins) Appetite loss, Poor wound healing, Abnormal taste and smell, Changes in hair and skin

It is recommended that Zinc intake remains close to the RDA as excessive Zinc can inhibit Copper adsorption and decrease serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

  However supplementation can increase isometric endurance and isokinetic strength at high speeds only.

Copper

Organ meats, Shellfish, Whole grains, Legumes, Chocolate, Nuts Rare: potentially toxic Rare: anaemia The effect of Copper supplementation on performance has not been examined.

Selenium

Grains, Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dairy products Not known: Hair loss, Nausea, Diarrhoea (possible)  Not known: Myalgia, Cardiac myopathy (possible) There is not much data on selenium supplementation as excessive consumption may be toxic.

Chromium

Mushrooms, Prunes, Nuts, Asparagus, Organ meats, Whole grain bread and cereals Not known Not known: Impaired glucose tolerance anaemia (possible) Chromium plays an important role in the potentiation of insulin, which is important in the transport  of blood sugar and amino acids into cells. Insulin also regulates protein metabolism and synthesis. On this basis it has been suggested that Chromium can act as an alternative to steroids.

Iron

Organ meats, Black strap molasses, Clams, Oysters, Dried legumes, Nuts and seeds, Red meats, Dark green leafy vegetables Rare: Liver damage Anaemia, Fatigue Iron supplementation has no affect on performance unless you are suffering from iron deficiency anaemia when supplementation will restore normal capacity.